Bulephelo

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Bulephelo
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10 A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9 030 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347

Bulephelo, lesiphindze satiwe ngesifo se-Hansens(HD, sifo lesikugula sikhatsi lesidzele kugulwa kwakhona kubangelwa ligciwanei-Mycobacterium leprae [1]neMycobacterium lepromatosis. [2] Ekucaleni, lokusuleleka ngalesifo bekungenatimphawu kantsi kuchubekile kwahlala kunjalo kusukela eminyakeni lesi-5 kuya kule-20. [1] Timphawu letiba khona tifaka ekhatsi i-granuloma yemiva, sikhala sekuphefumula, sikhumba nemehlo. [1] Loku kungabangela kutsi ungaseva buhlungu kanye nekulahlekelwa tincenye temingcele ngenca yekulimala lokuphindziwe noma kusuleleka ngesifo ngenca yetilondza lebetinganakwa. [3] Kungabi nemandla nekungakhoni kahle nako kungaba khona.[3]

Bulephelo bubhebhetseka busuka kulomunye umuntfu buye kulomunye. Kukholelwa ekutseni bundlulela kulomunye ngekukhwehlela noma kutsintsa lokusamanti lokuphuma emphumulweni yemuntfu lonalesifo. [4] Bulephelo buvame kuba khona ikakhulukati kulabo labahluphekako kantsi kukholelwa kutsi bundluliselwa ngekuphefumula. [3] Lokuhlukile kulombono lekukholelwa kuwo, kutsi asitsatselani.[3] Tinhlobo letimbili letibalulekile tetifo ticondziswe kulenombolo yemagciwane lakhona: paucibacillary ne multibacillary.[3] Letinhlobo letimbili tihlukaniswa ngenombolo yekungabi nembala lokahle, kuba nensindze esikhunjeni, ne paucibacillary ibe sihlanu noma lembalwa ne multibacillary lenaletindlula kusihlanu[3] Lokuhlolwa kwalesifo kucinisekiswa ngekutfolakala kwe-esidi lebitwa nge bacilli leyentiwa nge-biopsy yesikhumba noma ngekubuka I-DNA kusetjentiswa i-polymerase leluchungechunge[3]

Bulephelo buyalapheka ngemutsi lobitwa ngekutsi yi-Multidrug therapy (MDT). [1] i-[3] Kulashwa kwebulephelo i-multibacillary kwentiwa ngemitsi I-rifampicin , dapsone, neclofazimine tinyanga leti-12.[3] Lokulashwa kuniketwa mahhala hha yiNhlangano Yetemphilo Velonkhe.[1] Lamanye ema-antibiotics angasetjentiswa.[3] Mhlabawonkhe nga 2012, inombolo yekugulwa bulephelo sikhatsi lesidze yehla yaba ngu 189,000 kuya phansi isuka ku 5.2 wetigidzi ngemnyaka wangabo 1980.[1][5][6] Inombolo yekugula lokusha bekungu 230,000.[1] Kugula lokusha kwavela kumave la-16, lapho i-india ngiyo lebeyinebantfu labanyenti lababalelwa kuhhafu. [1][3] Kuleminyaka lenge-20 lendlulile, tigidzi leti-16 tebantfu mhlabawonkhe balashelwe bulephelo.[1] Bantfu labalinganiselwa ku-200 babikwa njalo ngemnyaka e-United States. [7]

Bulephelo butsintse bantfu iminyaka letinkhulungwane. [3] Lesifo sitsatsa ligama laso kuligama lesiLathini lelitsi lepra, lokusho kutsi “kuhlubeka”, ngalesikhatsi leligama “sifo se-Hansen” laniketwa ngemuva kwalodokotela lobitwa ngaGerhard Armauer Hansen .[3] Kuhlukanisa bantfu ngekubabeka kusenteka etindzaweni letifana ne india,[8]I-China,[9] ne Afrika.[10] Noma kunjalo, emakholoni lamanyenti avaliwe njengoba bulephelo abutsatselani. [10] kucwaswa emmangweni bekuhambisana nebulephelo yintfo yakudzala, kantsi kusachubeka kuba ngumngcele ekutseni bantfu batikhulumele nabagula nekulapheka ngesikhatsi. [1] Labanye leligama lelitsi Bulephelo balitsatsa njengalelitfukako, banconota lomusho lotsi “bantfu labagulwa bulephelo”.[11] Lilanga leBulephelo Velonkhe lacalwa nga 1954 kutsi kwatiswe.[12]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. 
  2. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x. 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737. 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8. 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News. 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021. 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765. 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.