Ihepatitis B

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Ihepatitis B sifo lesisulelanako lesibangelwa ligciwane lehepatitis B (i-HBV) lesitsikameta sibindzi. Ingabangela kokubili kusuleleka ngesifo kakhulu nangendlela lengalapheki. Bantfu labanyenti ababi netimphawu nabasuleleka kwekucala. Labanye bavele bagule bacale kuhlanta, babe nesikhumba lesiluphuti, bative bakhatsele, umchamo lomnyama nekulunywa sisu.[1] Letimphawu tivamise kuba khona emaviki lambalwa kantsi akukavami kwekutsi lokusuleleka kwekucala kubangele kufa.[1][2] Kungatsatsa emalanga lange-30 kuya ku-180 kutsi timphawu ticale.[1] Kulabo labasulelekako ngaleso sikhatsi sekubelekwa labangu-90% baba nesifo lesingalapheki sehepatitis B ngalesikhatsi labangaphansi kwa-10% walabo labasulelekile baba nalesifo nabaneminyaka lesihlanu.[3] Labanyenti balabo labanalesifo lesingasalapheki ababi netimphawu; noma kunjalo, icirrhosis nemdlavuza wesibidzi kungahle kucale kube khona.[4] Lokucakeka kuyaye kubangele kufa kwalabangu-15 kuya ku-25% walabo labanesifo lesingalapheki.[1]

Leligciwane lindluliselwa ngekusuleleka ngengati noma lokuliketjezi lokunalesifo lokuvela emtimbeni. Kusuleleka ngalesikhatsi kubelekwa noma kutsintsana nalabanye bantfu ngalesikhatsi basebancane yindlela lejwayeleke kakhulu lapho khona ihepatitis B itfolakala etindzaweni lapho khona lesifo sijwayelekile. Etindzaweni lapho lesifo singakavami khona kusetjentiswa kwetidzakamiva ngekutijova nekuya emacansini ngito tindlela letijwayelekile tekundlulisa lesifo.[1] Letinye tintfo letiyingoti tifaka ekhatsi: kusebenta kutemphilo, kufakelwa ingati, idayalisisi, kuhlala nemuntfu losulelekile, kuya etindzaweni lapho lesifo sisiningi khona, nekuhlala esikhungweni.[1][3] Kwenta ithathu nekuhlatjwa ngetinalitsi emtimbeni bekuholela kumazinga laphakeme ekugula ngeminyaka yabo 1980; noma kunjalo, loku akusavamanga ngenca yekuhlantwa kwetintfo lesekwentiwe ncono.[5] Ligciwane lehepatitis B angeke lasatjalaliswa ngekuchebulana, kusebentisa titja tinye, kucabuzana, kugonana, kukhwehlela, kutsimula, noma kumunyisa.[3] Lokusuleleka kungatfolwa ngemuva kwemalanga lange-30 kuya ku-60 ngemuva kwekusuleleka. Kuhlolelwa lesifo kwenteka ngekuhlola ingati kute kutfolakale tincenye talesifo nemasotja lalwisana naleligciwane.[1] Ngulesinye salamagciwane lasihlanu latiwako ehepatitis: A, B, C, D, na E.

Lokusuleleka bekuvikeleka ngekugoma kusukela nga-1982.[1][6] Kugoma kuyanconywa yiNhlangano Yetemphilo Mhlabawonkhe ngelilanga lekucala uma kukhonakala. Emadosi mabili noma matsatfu ayadzingeka ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi kute kusebenteke ngalokuphelele. Lomjovo usebenta ngalokulinganiselwa ku-95% ngaleso sikhatsi.[1] Emave lalinganiselwa ku-180 aniketa lomjovo njengencenye yetinhlelo tavelonkhe kusukela nga-2006.[7] Kuyanconywa futsi kutsi ingati yonkhe ihlolelwe ihepatitis B ngembi kwekuyindlulisela kulomunye nekutsi kusetjentiswe emajazi emkhwenyane kuvikela kusuleleka. Ngalesikhatsi sekucala kusuleleka, kunakekela kucondziswe kuletimphawu umuntfu lanato.  Kulabo lababa nesifo lesingalapheki imitsi yekulwisana naleligciwane lefana ne tenofovir noma interferon ingahle ibe lusito, noma kunjalo lemitsi iyabita. Kufakelwa sibindzi lesisha ngalesinye sikhatsi kuyentiwa uma une cirrhosis.[1]

Incenye yebantfu balokutsatfu emhlabeni bake basuleleka ekuphileni kwabo, kufaka ekhatsi tigidzi leti-240 kuya kutigidzi leti-350 webantfu lebasulelekile ngesifo lesingasalapheki.[1][8] Bantfu labangetulu kwa-750,000 babulawa yi-hepatitis B njalo ngemnyaka.[1] Lesifo nyalo sivamise e-East Asia nase sub-Saharan Africa lapho khona bantfu labadzala labasemkhatsini wa-5 na 10% banetifo letingalapheki. Emazinga ase Europe nase North America angaphansi nga-1%.[1] Bekuvamise kwatiwa nge-serum hepatitis.[9] Lucwaningo lubuke ekwakheni kudla lokunemutsi we-HBV.[10] Lesifo singaba nemtselela kuletinye timfene futsi.[11] Template:Infobox medical condition (new)

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Hepatitis B Fact sheet N°204". who.int. July 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. Raphael Rubin; David S. Strayer (2008). Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine ; [includes access to online text, cases, images, and audio review questions!] (5th ed.). Philadelphia [u.a.]: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 638. ISBN 9780781795166.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public — Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  4. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170.
  5. Thomas HC (2013). Viral Hepatitis (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 83. ISBN 9781118637302.
  6. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066.
  7. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology. 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
  8. Schilsky ML (2013). "Hepatitis B "360"". Transplantation Proceedings. 45 (3): 982–985. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.02.099. PMID 23622604.
  9. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association. 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597.
  10. Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  11. Plotkin, [edited by] Stanley A.; Orenstein,, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2013). Vaccines (6th. ed.). [Edinburgh]: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 208. ISBN 9781455700905.