Kuhlela umndeni

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Template:Infobox interventions Kuhlela umndeni, lekubuye kwatiwe ngekutsi kuhlela kanye nekuvikela kukhulelwa, leti tindlela noma ngemathulusi lasetjentiselwa kuvikela kukhulelwa.[1] Kuhlela, kwenta kutfolakale, kanye nekusebentisa tinsita tekulawula kubeleka kubitwa ngekutsi kuhlela umndeni.[2][3] Kulawula indlela yekubeleka isetjentiswe kusukela etikhatsini takadzeni, kodvwa tindlela letiyimphumelelo naletiphephile kuphela tibe khona ngemasentjuri abo-20.[4] Letinye tinhlanga tinciphisa noma atikhutsati kusetjentiswa kwetindlela tekulawula kubeleka ngoba tibonakala tingahambisani nemihambo, tenkholo, noma tepolitiki. [4]

Indlela lesebenta kahle kakhulu yekulawula kubeleka kuvala kwesikhashane ngekusebentisaivasekthomi emadvodzeni kanye nekuboshwa kwemashubhu kubomake, ngekusebentisa emathulusi lafakwa esinyeni (ema-IUD), kanye kwekuhlela umndeni lokuhlanyelwa esinyeni. Loku kulandzelwa tinhlobonhlobo ngemahomoni kufaka ekhatsi nalanatfwako, umndeni, lokuyindingilisi lokufakwa esitfweni samake sangasese, kanye naletimijovo. Tindlela letingasebenti kahle tifaka ekhatsi kuvikela ngekusebentisa umtimba njengelijazi lemkhwenyane nemadayaframu kanye nesipontji sekulawula kubeleka kanye netindlela tekucwayisa ngekutfomba. Indlela lesebenta kancane kunciphisa budvodza kanye lekukukhipha lekwentiwa yindvodza nekutfundzela ngaphandle. Kuvala, bekuyindlela lesebenta kahle, kodvwa awukhoni kuyibuyisela emuva; tonkhe letinye tindlela tiyajikiseka, hhayi ngekushesha ngemuva kwekutiyekela. [5] Kuya emacansini ngalokuphephile, njengekusebentisa lijazi lemkhwenyanenelijazi labomake, nako kungasita kuvikela tifo temacansi letitsatselanako.[6][7] Kwekuvikela kutfola bantfwana kwesimo lesiphutfumako kungavikela kukhulelwa kulamalanga lambalwa ngemuva kwekuya emacansini ngaphandle kwekutivikela.[8] Labanye babona ngatsi uvele utihlalele kuyindlela yekuhlela umndeni, kodvwa imfundziso yekungayi emacansini uma iyodvwa ingakhulisa emazinga ekukhulelwa kwebantfwana uma ngabe kuhanjiswa ngaphandle kwemfundvo lephatselene nekuhlela ngalenye indlela, ngenca yekutsi ingalandzelelwa. [9][10]

Endzabeni yalabasebancane, lokukhulelwa kwabo kusebungotini bekutsi kube nemiphumela lemihle. Kufundziswa ngalokugcwelengetemacansi kanye nekufinyelela etintfweni tekuhlela umndeni kwehlisa emazinga ekukhulelwa lokungadzingeki kubantfwana labasebancane. [11][12] Ngalesikhatsi titinyenti tindlela letingasetjentiswa kuvikela bantfu labasha,[13] tindlela letingasetjentiswa sikhatsi lesidze tibuye tiyekelwe njengaletifakwa ngekhatsi, i-IUD, noma lokuyindandatho lekufakwa esitfweni sangasese tiyindlela lekahle kakhulu lehlomulisako ekuvikeleni kukhulelwa kwelusha. [12] Ngekuva kwekubeleka umntfwana, make longamunyisi angahle akhulelwe futsi ngemuva kwemaviki lamane kuya kulasitfupha. Letinye tindlela tekuhlela umndeni tingacalwa ngekushesha ngemuva kwekubeleka, ngalesikhatsi letinye tidzinga kutsi ulindze tinyanga letisitfupha. Kubomake labamunyisako, lesetjentiswako iyanconywa kutsi ingasetjentiswa njengendlela yekuhlela ngalesikhatsi umunyisa kunekunatsa emaphilisi. Kubomake lesebafike esigabeni semenophozi, kunconywa kwekutsi bachubeke bahlele umnyaka wonkhe ngemuva kwalenyanga yekugcina kwabo kuya esikhatsini. [13]

Bomake labalinganiselwa kutigidzi letinge-222 labafuna kuvikela kukhulelwa amhlabawonkhe abasebentisi letindlela tekuhlela umndeni tesimanje. [14][15] Kusebentisa indlela yekulawula kubeleka emaveni lasatfutfuka yehlise inombolo nekushona ngalesikhatsi ukhulelwe ngemaphesenti langu 40% (kuvikelwa kufa kwalabalinganiselwa ku-270,000 nga 2008) kantsi bekungavikelwa 70% uma ngabe letidzingo letigcwele tekulawula kubeleka bekufinyelelwa kuto. [16][17] Ngekulindza sikhatsi lesidze ngemuva kwekuphindze ukhulelwe, kulawula indlela yekubeleka kungenta kancono indlela bomake lababeleka ngayo kanye nekuphila kwebantfwana babo. [16] Emaveni lasatfutfuka imiholo yabomake, tintfo labanato, nesisindvo, kanye nemfundvo yebantfwana babo nemphilo yabo konkhe kuyatfutfuka uma ngabe bafinyelela kahle kutindlelo tekulawula indlela yekubeleka. [18] Kokubili kulawula indlela yekubeleka nekukhula kutemnotfo ngenca yekuba nebantfwana labambalwa lobondlako, bomake labanyenti labasebentako, kantsi basebentisa kancane tinsita letingatfolakali kalula. [18][19]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. "Definition of Birth control". MedicineNet. Retrieved 9 August 2012. 
  2. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. June 2012. 
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). "Family planning". Health topics. World Health Organization (WHO). 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hanson, S.J.; Burke, Anne E. (21 December 2010). "Fertility control: contraception, sterilization, and abortion". In Hurt, K. Joseph; Guile, Matthew W.; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Fox, Harold E.; Wallach, Edward E. The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 382–395. ISBN 978-1-60547-433-5. 
  5. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. 
  6. Taliaferro, L. A.; Sieving, R.; Brady, S. S.; Bearinger, L. H. (2011). "We have the evidence to enhance adolescent sexual and reproductive health--do we have the will?". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 22 (3): 521–543, xii. PMID 22423463. 
  7. Chin, H. B.; Sipe, T. A.; Elder, R.; Mercer, S. L.; Chattopadhyay, S. K.; Jacob, V.; Wethington, H. R.; Kirby, D. et al. (2012). "The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42 (3): 272–294. PMID 22341164. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006. 
  8. Gizzo, S; Fanelli, T; Di Gangi, S; Saccardi, C; Patrelli, TS; Zambon, A; Omar, A; D'Antona, D et al. (October 2012). "Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications.". Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology 28 (10): 758–63. PMID 22390259. doi:10.3109/09513590.2012.662546. 
  9. DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (June 2002). "Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials". BMJ 324 (7351): 1426. PMC 115855. PMID 12065267. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7351.1426. 
  10. Duffy, K.; Lynch, D. A.; Santinelli, J. (2008). "Government Support for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 84 (6): 746–748. PMID 18923389. doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.188. 
  11. Black, A. Y.; Fleming, N. A.; Rome, E. S. (2012). "Pregnancy in adolescents". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 23 (1): 123–138, xi. PMID 22764559. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Rowan, S. P.; Someshwar, J.; Murray, P. (2012). "Contraception for primary care providers". Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 23 (1): 95–110, x–xi. PMID 22764557. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. pp. 260–300. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. 
  14. "Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services: Estimates for 2012" (pdf). United Nations Population Fund. June 2012. p. 1. 
  15. Carr, B.; Gates, M. F.; Mitchell, A.; Shah, R. (2012). "Giving women the power to plan their families". The Lancet 380 (9837): 80–82. PMID 22784540. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60905-2. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Cleland, J; Conde-Agudelo, A; Peterson, H; Ross, J; Tsui, A (Jul 14, 2012). "Contraception and health.". Lancet 380 (9837): 149–56. PMID 22784533. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60609-6. 
  17. Ahmed, S.; Li, Q.; Liu, L.; Tsui, A. O. (2012). "Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: An analysis of 172 countries". The Lancet 380 (9837): 111–125. PMID 22784531. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60478-4. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Canning, D.; Schultz, T. P. (2012). "The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning". The Lancet 380 (9837): 165–171. PMID 22784535. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60827-7. 
  19. Van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.; Roelens, K.; Degomme, O. (2012). "Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development". The Lancet 380 (9837): 84–85. PMID 22784542. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60902-7.