Kukhipha sisu

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Kukhipha sisu
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10 O04 O04
ICD/CIM-9 779.6 779.6
DiseasesDB 4153
MedlinePlus 002912

Kukhipha sisu kujuba/kuphelisa kukhulelwa ngekususa noma ngekukhipha sisu ngesihluku lesitfwele umntfwana longakavutfwa noma imbewu ngembi kwekutsi ikhone kutikhulela ngekwayo. Sisu singaphuma ngalokungakalindzeleki ngekushesha, loko lekubese kubitwa ngekutsi kuphunyelwa sisu. Kungentiwa futsi ngamabomu lapho kubitwa ngekutsiwa kukhishwa kwesisu ngekutitsandzela kusetjentiswa imitsi. Sikhatsi sekukhishwa kwesisu kuvamise kucondziswa ngalesikhatsi kukhishwa sisu ngekutitsandzela kusetjentiswa imitsi kumuntfu lokhulelwe. Indlela lefanako ngemuva kwekutsi umntfwana akwati kutiphilela ngekwakho ngekwetemphilo ivamise kubitwa ngekutsi "kukhipha sisu ngemuva kwesikhatsi lesidze ukhulelwe".[1]

Betekulapha besimanje basebentisa imitsi noma tindlela tekuhlindza kute kukhishwe sisu ngekutitsandzela. Lemitsi lemibili lebitwa nge-mifepristone kanyene-prostaglandin isebenta kahle kakhulu kufana nendlela yekuhlindvwa uma ngabe usesetinyangeni tekucala letintsatfu tekukhulelwa.[2][3] Nanoma kusetjentiswa kwemitsi kungaba yimphumelelo kuletinyanga letine kuya ngetulu tekukhulelwa,[4] indlela yekuhlindvwa ibonakala inebungoti lobuncane ekutseni kube nemitselela lengemihle nakwentiwa lenchubo. [3] Kuhlelwa kwemndeni, kufaka ekhatsi lamaphilisi kanyeneluphu kungentiwa ngekushesha ngemuva kwekukhipha sisu. [3] Kukhishwa kwesisu kulomhlaba lesewutfutfukile kunemlandvo lomudze wekutsi kuletinye tindlela letiphephile tekusebentisa imitsi uma ngabe tivumelekile nemtsetfo wakuleli.[5][6] Kukhishwa kwesisu ngaphandle kwetihibe akubangeli kugula kwesikhatsi lesidze kwengcondvo noma tinkinga tekungaphili kwemtimba. [7] Inhlangano Yetemphilo Mhlabawonkhe incoma kwekutsi lelizinga lelifanako lekuphepha nekukhishwa kwesisu ngalokusemtsetfweni litfolakale kubo bonkhe bomake mhlabawonkhe. [8] Kukhipha tisu ngendlela lengakaphephi, noma kunjalo, kuyaye kubangele kushona kwalabalinganiselwa ku-47,000 webantfu labakhulelwe[7] kanye netigidzi leti-5 tebantfu labangeniswa etibhedlela njalo ngemnyaka mhlabawonkhe jikelele. [9]

Kukhishwa tisu letilinganiselwa kutigidzi leti-44 mhlabawonkhe jikelele ngemnyaka, kantsi letilinganiselwa kuhhafu yaloko kwentiwa ngendlela lengakaphephi. [10] Emazinga ekukhishwa kwetisu sekagucukile kancane kusukela emkhatsini wanga 2003 na 2008, [10] ngemuva kwekucitsa iminyaka kwehla ngalesikhatsi kuzanywa kufinyelela kumitamo yekufundzisa ngekuhlelwa kwemindeni kanye nekulawula indlela yekubeleka.[11] Template:As of , bomake labangemaphesenti lalishumi nakune mhlabawonkhe bayakwati kufinyelela kutinsita tekukhipha sisu ngekutitsandzela basebentisa imitsi ngalokusemtsetfweni "ngaphandle kwekuhlangabetana netintfo letingaba tihibe noma kudzingeke tinchazelo". [12] Noma kunjalo, kunemikhawulo yekutsi ungakhipha sisu uma sewunesikhatsi lesingakanani.[12]

Kukhishwa kwesisu ngekutitsandzela ngekusebentisa imitsi emlandvweni. Kwentiwa ngetindlela letihlukile, kufaka ekhatsi langumutsi wesintfu , kusetjentiswa kwemathulusi lakhaliphile, kuviswa buhlungu emtimbeni, kanye naletinye letitindlela tendzabuko lebetisetjentiswa kwakudzala.[13] Umtsetfo nemitsetfo lengamele kukhishwa kwetisu, kutsi isetjentiswa kangakanani, kanye nesimo sayo kutemasiko netenkholo kuyahluka kakhulu mhlaba wonkhe. Ngalesinye sikhatsi, kukhishwa kwesisu kuba semtsetfweni ngekuhambisana netimo letitsite, njenga nawudlwengulwe sihlobo, kudlwengulwa, nekushona kwemntfwana esuswini, leminye imitselela letsintsa simo setemphilo nemnotfo noma bungoti emphilweni yamake lokhulelwe. [14] Etindzaweni letinyenti tavelonkhe kunetingcogco nekudideka kwebantfu ngekuvumeleka kwalesento, nekuba semtsetfweni kwetindzaba letiphatselene nekukhishwa kwetisu. Labo kwetisu bavamise kusho kwekutsi loku lekusuke sekwakhele esuswini noma lomntfwana longekhatsi usuke sekangumuntfu futsi lanelilungelo lekuphila kantsi bacatsanisa kukhipha sisu nekubulala.[15][16] Labo labasekela nemalungelo ekukhishwa kwetisu bagcizelela njengemalungelo emuntfu wesifazane ekuncuma ngetintfo letiphatselene nemtimba wakhe[17] kanye nekugcizelela emalungelo eluntfu sekafaka ekhatsi konkhe.[8]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. PMID 20103443. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. 
  2. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. PMID 22071804. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. PMID 23261233. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027. 
  4. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. PMID 21249669. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. 
  5. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. PMID 17126724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. 
  6. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. PMID 25152259. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. 
  9. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. PMID 22264435. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. 
  11. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. PMID 17938093. doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. PMID 20451196. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. 
  13. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history" (PDF). In MPaul, ES Lichtenberg, L Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin. Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. 
  14. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. PMID 18957353. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08. 
  15. Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people have in common?". Fox News. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  16. Dale Hansen (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  17. Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781135115227.