Pertussis

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Whooping cough
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle
A young boy coughing due to pertussis.
A young boy coughing due to pertussis.

IPertussis, leyibuye yatiwe ngekutsi kukhwehlela kubhadle sikhwehlela noma kukhwehlela emalanga lali-100, sifo lesinemagciwane latsatselana ngalokundlulele.[1][2] Timphawu tekucala tivamise kufana naleto temkhuhlane lojwayelekile ngekutsi uvute emafinyila, ifiva nekukhwehlela kancane. Loku kubese kulandzelwa kukhwehlela kakhulu lokungapheli. Loku kulandzelwa ngemaviki ekukhwehlela kamatima. Bese kulandzela kuhlala ukhwehlela njalo kulandzele kukhwehlela kubhadle sikhwehlela kantsi lomsindvo ungavakala noma umuntfu aphefumula.[2]  Lokukhwehlela kungachubeka kundlula emalanga lalikhulu noma emaviki lalishumi.[3] Umuntfu angakhwehlela kamatima aze ahlante, aphuke timbambu, noma ative akhatsele ngalesento.[2][4] Bantfwana labangaphansi kwemnyaka munye budzala bangahle bakhwehlele kancane noma bangakhwehleli noma babe netikhatsi lapho bangakhoni kuphefumula khona.[2] Lesikhatsi lesisemkhatsini wekusuleleka nekucala kwetimphawu kuvamise kuba ngemalanga lasikhombisa kuya kulalishumi.[5] Tifo tingavela kulabo labagomile kodvwa timphawu tivamise kuba tincane.[2]

IPertussis ibangelwa ligciwane leBordetella pertussis. Sifo lesibhebhetsekako lesisabalala kalula ngekukhwehlela nekutsimula kwemuntfu losulelekile.[6] Bantfu bayabasulela labanye kusukela nakucala kubonakala timphawu kudzimate kufike emaviki lamatsatfu kulokukhwehlela kamatima. Labo labalashwa ngekunatsa ema-anthibhayothiki abasasindlulisi lesifo ngemuva kwemalanga lasihlanu.[7] Kucwaningwa kwentiwa ngekubutsela isampuli ngemuva ngekhatsi emphumulweni nasemphinjeni. Losampuli ingabese iyahlolwa ngekusebentisa lisiko noma ipholimerasi lekuluchungechunge lwetento.[8]

Kuyivikela kuvamise kuba kutfola umjovo wepertussis.[9] Kugoma kwekucala kuyanconywa emkhatsini wemaviki lasitfupha kuya kulasiphohlongo budzala ngemadosi lamane lewuniketwa wona kuleminyaka lemibili yekucala emphilweni.[10] Lomjovo uya ngekungasebenti kahle ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi bese kudzingeka kutsi utfole lamanye emadosi kubantfwana labadzadlana nakulabadzala.[11] Ema-anthibhayothiksi angasetjentiswa kuvikela lesifo kulabo lebasengotini yekutfola letinye tifo.[12] Kulabo labanalesifo ema-anthibhayothiksi abalulekile uma ngabe acalwe kungakapheli emaviki lamatsatfu nakucala kubonakala timphawu kodvwa avamise kuba nemtselela lomncane kubantfu labanyenti. Kubantfwana labangaphansi kwemnyaka munye nakulabo labakhulelwe kunconywa kutsi baniketwe kungakapheli emaviki lasitfupha nakucala kubonakala timphawu. Ema-anthibhayothiki lasetjentiswako afaka ekhatsi i-erythromycin, azithromycin, noma itrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[7] Bufakazi bekusekela lemphumelelo yekusebenta kwemitsi kulokukhwehlela bubi.[13] Bantfwana labanyenti labangaphansi kwemnyaka munye budzala badzinga kulaliswa esibhedlela.[2]

Kulinganiselwa ekutseni ipertussis ihlasela bantfu labatigidzi leti-16 mhlabawonkhe ngemnyaka.[13] Kugula lokunyenti kwenteka emaveni lekasatfutfuka kantsi bantfu labaneminyaka lehlukene bangasuleleka noma bangakanani.[9][13] Nga 2013 kubangele kushona kwebantfu labangu-61,000 – kwehla kusuka ku-138,000 wekushona kwebantfu nga-1990.[14] Bantfwana labasulelekile labalinganiselwa ku-2% labangaphansi kwemnyaka munye bayashona.[4] Kubhebhetseka kwalesifo kwacala kwachazwa ngesentjuri ye-16. Leligciwane lelibangela lokungenwa ngulesifo latfolakala nga-1906. Lomjovo wacala kutfolakala nga-1940.[5]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. Carbonetti NH (June 2007). "Immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis infection and disease". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 7 (3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.12.004. PMID 17418639.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Signs & Symptoms". May 22, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  3. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Fast Facts". cdc.gov. February 13, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Pertussis Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135.
  6. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Causes & Transmission". cdc.gov. September 4, 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Treatment". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  8. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Specimen Collection". cdc.gov. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Heininger U (February 2010). "Update on pertussis in children". Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 8 (2): 163–73. doi:10.1586/eri.09.124. PMID 20109046.
  10. "Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 89 (30): 337–40. Jul 2014. PMID 25072068.
  11. "Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 85 (40): 385-400. Oct 1, 2010. PMID 20939150.
  12. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Prevention". cdc.gov. October 10, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R; Heneghan, CJ; Harnden, A (22 September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMID 25243777.
  14. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442.