Tilondza esitfweni samake sangasese

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Tilondza esitfweni samake sangasese
photograph
Road sign near Kapchorwa, Uganda, where FGM is outlawed but still practised by the Pokot, Sabiny and Tepeth people.[1]
Description Partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons[2]
Areas practised Most common in 27 countries in sub-Saharan and north-east Africa, as well as in Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan[3]
Numbers 133 million in those countries[4]
Age performed Weeks after birth to puberty and beyond[5]

Tilondza esitfweni samake sangasese FGM, letiphindze tatiwe ngekutsi kusikeka esitfweni sangasese kanye nekucwiywa kwesitfo samake sangasese, kuchazwa Inhlangano Yetemphilo Velonkhe (WHO) "njengekuhlindvwa lokufaka ekhatsi kukhishwa kwencenye noma konkhe lokulimele kulesitfo sangasese noma lokulimala kulesitfo samake sangasese kwentela tizatfu tekulapha."[2] I-FGM yentiwa njengelisiko yentiwa newesintfu emaveni lange-27 Sub-Saharan kaye ne-Northeast Afrika, kancane futsi nase Asia, Enkhabeni yeMpumalanga kanye nakuleminye imiphakatsi yebachamuki kuletinye tindzawo. [6] Iminyaka yebudzala yekwentiwa kwalelisiko iyahluka kusukela kumalanga ngemuva kwekubelekwa kuya ngalesikhatsi sekutfomba, kuhhafu wemave lapho kutfolakala khona emanani avelonkhe, emantfombatane lamanyenti ajutjwa ngembi kwekutsi ahlanganise iminyaka lesihlanu. [7]

Lesento sifaka ekhatsi inchubo yekusikwa yinye noma timbili, kantsi kuba nemehluko ngekuya kwetinhlanga letihlukene. Kufaka ekhatsi kukhishwa yonkhe incenye yesicotolo kanye nesigcoko saso sicotolo; tonkhe noma letinye tincenye talesicotolo nemalebe angekhatsi; nangalendlela lekulula ngayo kuhlanganisa emalebe nesicotolo kutfungelwe ndawonye noma incenye yalokwangekhatsi kanye nalawa angaphandle kanye nekuvalwa kwesitfo sangasese. Kulenchubo yekulashwa yekugcina, letibitwa yi-WHO ngekutsi Type III FGM, kushiywa sikhadlala lesincane kwentelwe kutsi kuphume umchamo nengati uma ngabe usesikhatsini, bese sitfo sangasese siyavulwa kwentelwe kuya emacansini kanye nekubeleka. [8] Lemitselela kutemphilo iya ngalenchubo yekuhlindvwa kodvwa ingafaka ekhatsi kusuleleka ngetifo lokungapheli, buhlungu lobungalapheki, isisti, kungakhoni kukhulelwa, kuba netinkinga ngalesikhatsi ubeleka kanye nekopha lokungabangela kufa. [9]

Lenchubo isuselwa ekungalinganeni ngekwebulili, imitamo yekulawula indlela bomake labaya ngayo emacasini, kanye nemibono ngekuba msulwa, kubukeka kahle nangekwesimanje. Loku kuvamise kucaliswa futsi kwentiwe bomake, lebakubona njengendlela yekuhlonipheka, laba basuke basaba kwekutsi uma ngabe bangavumi kutsi bantfwana babo nebatukulu babo bajutjwe kutawenta kwekutsi lamantfombatane anganakwa ngumphakatsi.[10] Bomake labadlula kutigidzi leti-130 kanye nemantfombatane bayentile i-FGM kulamave lange-29 lapho lenchubo inakwa khona. [4] Ngetulu kwetigidzi letisiphohlongo tivaliwe ngaphansi kwesitfo sangasese, lekuyintfo letfolakala kakhulu eDjibouti, Eritrea, Somalia nase Sudan.[11]

I-FGM ayisekho emtsetfweni noma ayisavumelekanga kulamave lamanyenti lapho yentiwa khona, kodvwa lemitsetfo ayisetjentiswa kahle. [12] Bekunemitamo lekhona kusukela nga 1970 kuzama kwenta kutsi bantfu bayiyekele, kantsi nga 2012kuNhlangano Lengamele Emave Emhlaba, babona i-FGM njengalebukela emalungelo ebantfu phansi. [13] Labo labaphikisako nabo banemibono yabo lehlukile, ikakhulukati kulaba labafundza ngebantfu nemasiko abo. Eric Silverman i-FGM seyibe sihloko lekucociswana ngaso kakhulu kulabafundza ngebantfu nemasiko abo, babuta imibuto lelukhuni lephatselene nemaciniso ngemasiko, kubeketela kanye nekuhlukana kwemalungelo ebantfu. [14]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. Masinde, Andrew. "FGM: Despite the ban, the monster still rears its ugly head in Uganda", New Vision, Uganda, 5 February 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Classification of female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, 2013 (hereafter WHO 2013).
  3. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change", United Nations Children's Fund, July 2013 (hereafter UNICEF 2013), p. 2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: What Might the Future Hold?, New York: UNICEF, 22 July 2014 (hereafter UNICEF 2014), p. 3/6: "If nothing is done, the number of girls and women affected will grow from 133 million today to 325 million in 2050." Also see p. 6/6:

    "Data sources: UNICEF global databases, 2014, based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and other nationally representative surveys, 1997–2013. Population data are from: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 revision, CD-ROM edition, United Nations, New York, 2013.

    "Notes: Data presented in this brochure cover the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and for which nationally representative data are available."

  5. UNICEF 2013, p. 50.
  6. UNICEF 2013, p. 2
  7. UNICEF 2013, pp. 47, 50, 183.
  8. WHO 2013; WHO 2008, p. 4
  9. Abdulcadira, Jasmine; Margairaz, C.; Boulvain, M; Irion, O. "Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting", Swiss Medical Weekly, 6(14), January 2011 (review).
  10. UNICEF 2013, p. 15: "There is a social obligation to conform to the practice and a widespread belief that if they [families] do not, they are likely to pay a price that could include social exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or the inability to find their daughters suitable marriage partners."

    Nahid F. Toubia, Eiman Hussein Sharief, "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?", International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261: "One of the great achievements of the past decade in the field of FGM is the shift in emphasis from the concern over the harmful physical effects it causes to understanding this act as a social phenomenon resulting from a gender definition of women's roles, in particular their sexual and reproductive roles. This shift in emphasis has helped redefine the issues from a clinical disease model (hence the terminology of eradication prevalent in the literature) to a problem resulting from the use of culture to protect social dominance over women's bodies by the patriarchal hierarchy. Understanding the operative mechanisms of patriarchal dominance must also include understanding how women, particularly older married women, are important keepers of that social hegemony." Template:PMID Template:Doi

  11. P. Stanley Yoder, Shane Khan, "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total", USAID, DHS Working Papers, No. 39, March 2008, pp. 13–14: "Infibulation is practiced largely in countries located in northeastern Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Survey data are available for Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Sudan alone accounts for about 3.5 million of the women. ... [T]he estimate of the total number of women infibulated in [Djibouti, Somalia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tanzania, for women 15–49 years old] comes to 8,245,449, or just over eight million women." Also see Appendix B, Table 2 ("Types of FGC"), p. 19.

    UNICEF 2013, p. 182, identifies "sewn closed" as most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia for the 15–49 age group (a survey in 2000 in Sudan was not included in the figures), and for the daughters of that age group it is most common in Djibouti, Eritrea, Niger and Somalia. See UNICEF statistical profiles: Djibouti (December 2013), Eritrea (July 2014), Somalia (December 2013).

    Also see Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996 (pp. 999–1017), p. 1002: "Infibulation, the harshest practice, occurs contiguously in Egyptian Nubia, the Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, also known as Islamic Northeast Africa."

  12. For countries in which it is outlawed or restricted, UNICEF 2013, p. 8; for enforcement, UNFPA–UNICEF 2012, p. 48.
  13. "67/146. Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation", United Nations General Assembly, adopted 20 December 2012.

    Emma Bonino, "Banning Female Genital Mutilation", The New York Times, 19 December 2012.

  14. Eric K. Silverman, "Anthropology and Circumcision", Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 2004 (pp. 419–445), pp. 420, 427.