Umbuso waseMonomotapa

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  Umbuso waseMutapa, lophindze watiwe ngekutsi iMwenemutapa, kumbe iMonomotapa bekungumbuso wase-Afrika eZimbabwe, lowakhula wafinyelela endzaweni lomuhla leyatiwa ngeMozambique.

Libalave lemaPutukezi langelikhulu lelishumi nesitfupha le Monomotapa lelisekhatsi eningizimu ye-Afrika.

Monomotapa ligama lesiPutugezi lihunyushwe esigabeni sebukhosi sase Shona lelitsi Mwenemutapa lelisuselwa ekuhlanganisweni kwemagama lamabili lelitsi Mwene lelisho iNkhosi nobe iNkhosi, kanye neligama lelitsi Mutapa lelisho live. Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi ligama lebukhosi lenkhosi lasetjentiswa embusweni wonkhe, futsi belisetjentiswa ekuchazeni indzawo yembuso kumabalave angaleso sikhatsi.

Umlandvo[hlela | edit source]

Kunetindzaba letinyenti temvelaphi yeMutapa, letemukelekako letashiwo ngemlandvo wetindvuna taseZimbabwe. "Mwene" wekucala bekalibutfo lebelatiwa ngekuba nesibindzi, kantsi bekabitwa ngaNyatsimba Mutota (Indvodzana yeNkhosi Nyanhewe Matope) wase Zimbabwe lowakhulisa kufinyelela kwembuso ekucaleni kute atfole imitfombo lemisha yeluswayi enyakatfo.[1] Kukholelwa kutsi iNkhosi Mutota yatfola luswayi ekuncobeni kwayo iTavara, incenye yeShona. Lenye indzaba yemlandvo lemayelana nemvelaphi yalombuso kutsi iNkhosi Mutota yehlukana ne-Great Zimbabwe ngemuva kwekulwa ne-Prince Mukwati, (lokukholelwa kutsi bekungumnakabo nobe umzala wakhe) mayelana nekulawula uMbuso.

Kwandza[hlela | edit source]

Indvodzana yaMutota kanye nalona lowamlandzela, Nyanhewe Matope, wandzisa lombuso lomusha waba ngumbuso lohlanganisa tindzawo letinyenti letisemkhatsini weTavara ne-Indian Ocean.[2] Lombuso waphumelela ekuhlanganiseni bantfu labanyenti eNingizimu ye-Afrika ngekwakha emabutfo lanemandla, laceceshwe kahle kanye nekukhutsata emave kutsi angene ngekutitsandzela, anikete lilunga leMkhandlu Lomkhulu weMbuso kunobe ngubani lowangena ngaphandle kwekuphikisa.[3] Emabutfo aMatope ancoba umbuso wemaManyika kanye nemibuso yaseKiteve naseMadanda.[2] Ngesikhatsi emaPutukezi efika elugwini lwaseMozambique, Umbuso waseMutapa wawungumbuso lomkhulu kulesigodzi.[2] Wakha libutfo lelikhulu lelancoba indzawo yase Dande eTonga nase Tavara. Lombuso wafinyelela ezingeni lawo leliphelele ngemnyaka wa 1480 eminyakeni lengu-50 ngemuva kwekusungulwa kwawo.[3]

Inkholo[hlela | edit source]

Umbusi Mutope washiya lombuso nenkholo lehlelekile kanye nebaphristi labanemandla. Inkholo yembuso waseMutapa beyikhuluma ngekubonisana nemimoya kanye nabokhokho bebukhosi. Tindzawo letingcwele betigcinwe ngekhatsi kwenhlokodolobha ngemimoya leyatiwa ngekutsi yi mhondoro. I-Mhondoro iphindze isebente njengetati temlandvo letibhalwe ngemlomo letibhalwe emagama netento temakhosi langaphambilini.[4]

Kuchumana nemaPutukezi[hlela | edit source]

EmaPutukezi abusa incenye lenkhulu yemncele waseningizimu-mpumalanga ye-Afrika, abhubhisa iSofala neKilwa, nga-1515.[5] Umgomo wabo lomkhulu bekukwengamela kuhwebelana neNdiya; nomakunjalo, bangakacondzi baba batsengisi betimphahla tekunethezeka emkhatsini wemibuso yaseMutapa kanye neNdiya. Ngesikhatsi emaPutukezi ahlala ngaselugwini, ahamba aya etindzaweni letisemaphandleni njenge sertanejos (basebentisi bemahlatsi) lebekahlala eceleni kwebahwebi baseSwahili futsi asebenta emakhosini aseShona njengetihumushi kanye nebeluleki bepolitiki. Lomunye we-sertanejo, António Fernandes, wakhona kuhamba cishe kuyo yonkhe imibuso yase Shona, kufaka ekhatsi sifundza saseMutapa, emkhatsini wemnyaka wa-1512 na-1516.[6]

EmaPutukezi agcine angene ebudlelwaneni lobucondzile nemaMwenemutapa ngemnyaka wa 1560.[1] Babhala lwati lolunyenti mayelana nembuso waseMutapa kanye nalona lowalandzela, iGreat Zimbabwe. Ngekusho kwebahwebi baseSwahili labetindzaba tabo letibhalwe nguJoão de Barros, iGreat Zimbabwe bekuyindzawo lenkhulu leyakhiwe ngematje lamakhulu ngaphandle kwekusebentisa sitini. Futsi nanobe lendzawo ingekho eminyeleni yaseMutapa, i-Mwenemutapa beyigcina bantfu labahloniphekile kanye nalabanye bafati bayo lapho.[2] Ngelikhulu lesi-17, labanye baseYurophu bebatawuchaza kabanti kwakhiwa kweMutapa ngemidvwebo. Olfert Dapper waveta emasango lamane lamakhulu laholela emahholweni lamanyenti kanye nemakamelo esigodlweni saseMutapa. Luphahla lwemakamelo esigodlo beluhlotjiswe ngegolide kanye nemapuleti egolide eceleni kwetibane te-ivory lebetilengiswe etinhlavini tesiliva futsi tigcwalisa emahholwa ngekukhanya.

Kubhajatiswa kwenkhosi Siti wase Mutapa nge-workshop ya Tomasz Muszyński, 1683, Dominican Monastery eLublin. Lubhabhatiso lwaSiti Kazurukamusapa lwagujwa nguJoão de Mello mhlaka 4 Ingci 1652, lilanga lemkhosi wa St Dominic.

Tinkomba[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Oliver, page 203
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Oliver, page 204
  3. 3.0 3.1 (280 ed.).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. Oliver, page 205
  5. Oliver, page 206
  6. Oliver, page 207

Imitfombo[hlela | edit source]

  • (596 ed.).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • (738 ed.).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • (163 ed.).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • (395 ed.).  Missing or empty |title= (help)