LiBhayibheli

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LiBhayibheli "Gutemberg".

LiBhayibheli, liyitsatsa njengencwadzi lendze lokumatima kuyicondza ngaletinye tikhatsi.

  • Livi lakho liliciniso.” (Johane 17:17)
  • Akube khashane naNkulunkulu kuba ngumenti walokubi, kwenta bubi akube khashane naSomandla.” (Jobe 34:10)
  • Babe wetfu losezulwini, ...umbuso wakho awute. Intsandvo yakho ayentiwe emhlabeni, njengobe yentiwa ezulwini.” (Matewu 6:9,10)

Leligama Libhayibheli, liphindze libitwe ngekutsi Libhayibheli Lelingcwele, lingasho linye nobe mabili kulamabhuku enkholo layinhlitiyo yenkholo yebuJuda kanye nebuKristu - Mibhalo Lengcwele yeMahebheru kanye neBuKristu ngekuhlonipheka.

Libhayibheli lisilundza sekucala semlandvo wakudzala wase-Isirayeli. Kepha libhayibheli akusilo nje libhuku lemlandvo, kepha mabhuku alo kusuka ku-Joshuwa kuye tukweTikronike tesibili msebenti lowabhalwa bafundzi bemlandvo wakudzala waka-Israyeli. Bafundzi bemlandvo baka-Israyeli babhala lomlandvo ngelwati lebalibona liliciniso ngekwemlandvo. Njengebabhali bemlandvo banyalo, babhali beliBhayibheli bebavamise kuniketa tizatfu ngekwemlandvo nobe lwati lwangaphambilini ngetintfo lebebabhala ngato (e.g., 1Samuel 28:31 Sam. 28:3, 1Kings 18:3, 1 Kings 18:3, 2Kings 9:14b-15, 2 Kings 9:14b-15a, 2Kings 13:5-6, 2Kings 15:12, 2Kings 17:7-23).

BuJuda busebentis incenye yinye yalamabhuku leyatiwangekutsi yi-Tanakh, Libhayibheli lemaHebheru, livamiswe kuhlukwaniswa tincenye letintsatfu: i-Torah ("infundziso" nobe "umtsetfo"), i-Nevi'im ("bapholofethi"), ne-Ketuvim ("imibhalo").

Lelibhayibheli lelifundvwa Makrestu lihlukene tigaba letibili letiliThestamente Lelidzala neliThestamente Lelisha. Kuma kwemibhalo yeliThestamente Lelidzala kuphikiswana ngako emkhatsini wemacembu eBukristu: ma-Protestants atsatsa onke mabhuku siHebheru njengemabhuku lekungiwo lekufanele abe tukweliThestamente Lelidzala. Makhatokila aseRoma kanye nema-Orthodox aseMpumalanga angeta mabhuku e-deuterocanonical, mabhuku emaJuda, njengemibhalo lekufanele ifakwe tukweli-Thestamente Lelidzala. LiThestamente Lelisha lakhiwe maGosbheli ("tindzaba letimnandzi"), Tento tebaPostoli, ma-Epistles (timcwadzi), kanye neLibhuku leSambulo.

Ngalesinye sikhatsi leligama "libhayibheli" like lisetshentiswe uma kukhulunya ngalamanye mabhuku lamikhaba yanobe nguyiphi inkholo, nobe uma kukhulunya ngencwadzi lechaza kabanti ngesihloko tsite.

Nevi'im[hlela | edit source]

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I-Nevi'im, nobe "Bapholofethi," ikhuluma ngekukhula kwebuso wemaHebheru, kuhlukana kwawo ube tigaba letibili, nebapholofeti la, ngeligama Lasimakadze, bacwayisa makhosi kanye nebaNtfwana bakaIsrayeli ngepanishiwa nguSimakadze. Kugcina ngekuncotshwa kweBukhosi baka-Isirayeli ba-Assyrians, kuncotshwa kwebukhosi bakaJuda maBhabhin, kanye nekuwa kweliThempeli laseJerusalema. Tincenye talamabhuku alabapholofethi afundvwa maJuda ngeliSabatha (Shabbat). Libhuku la Jonah lifundvwa nge-Yom Kippur.

Ngekwelisiko emaJuda, i-Nevi'im ihlukaniswe tigaba letisiphohlongo temabhuku. Kutolikwa lokusha kwato kuhlukaniswe tigaba letimashumi lamabili nakunye.

I-Nevi'im iphetse lamabhuku lasiphohlongo lalandzelayo:

  • 6. Joshua, Js—Yehoshua (יהושע)
  • 7. Judges, Jg—Shoftim (שופטים)
  • 8. Samuel, includes First and Second 1Sa–2Sa—Shemuel (שמואל)
  • 9. Kings, includes First and Second, 1Ki–2Ki—Melakhim (מלכים)
  • 10. Isaiah, Is—Yeshayahu (ישעיהו)
  • 11. Jeremiah, Je—Yirmiyahu (ירמיהו)
  • 12. Ezekiel, Ez—Yekhezkel (יחזקאל)
  • 13. Twelve, includes all Minor Prophets—Tre Asar (תרי עשר)
    • A. Hosea, Ho—Hoshea (הושע)
    • B. Joel, Jl—Yoel (יואל)
    • C. Amos, Am—Amos (עמוס)
    • D. Obadiah, Ob—Ovadyah (עבדיה)
    • E. Jonah, Jh—Yonah (יונה)
    • F. Micah, Mi—Mikhah (מיכה)
    • G. Nahum, Na—Nahum (נחום)
    • H. Habakkuk, Hb—Havakuk (חבקוק)
    • I. Zephaniah, Zp—Tsefanya (צפניה)
    • J. Haggai, Hg—Khagay (חגי)
    • K. Zechariah, Zc—Zekharyah (זכריה)
    • L. Malachi, Ml—Malakhi (מלאכי)

Ketuvim[hlela | edit source]

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Ketuvim, nobe "Imibhalo", kufanele kutsi yabhalwa ngesikhatsi nobe emva kwekuBanjwa maBhabhlona. Ngekusho kwemasiko esi-Rabbinic tradition kanye nato tihloko temaHubo, lamanyenti emahubo lasebhukwini lemaHubo abhalwa ngu-Davide; kutsenjwa kutsi Inkosi Solomoni yabhala Tihlabelelo Tetihlabelelo eminyakeni yakhe yebusha, Libhuku lemavi Lahlakaniphile eminyakeni yekhe yebudzala yemphilo, kanye neTicclesiastes ngesikhasi sekagugile; umpholofethi Jeremiya kukholelwa kutsi wabhala Lamentations. Libhuku la-Ruth ngilo kuphela libhuku lasebhayibhelini lelibukene nebantfu labangasi maJuda. Lilibhuku la-Ruth likhuluma ngendzaba yemuntfu lekangasilo liJuda (pheceleti, umMoabi lobekashade nemJuda lekwatsi ngekufa kwalomJuda, walandzela etindleni temaJuda; ngekusho kwelibhayibheli, lona wekunene bekangukhokhokati we-Nkosi Davide. Lasihlanu kulamabhuku labitwa ngekutsi "Tikroli Lenhlanu" (Megilot), afundvwa ngemaholide emaJuda: Tihlabelelo Tetihlabelelo nge Passover; Libhuku la-Ruth nge Shavuot; Lamentations ne Ninth of Av; Macclesiastes nge Sukkot; kanye ne-Libhulu la-Esta nge Purim. Konke nje, i-Ketuvim iphetse tinkhodlo temagama, mibono ngemphilo, kanye netindzaba tebapholofethi nalabanye baholi bemaJuda ngesikhatsi kubhaqwe eBhabhilona. Igcina ngemlayelo wasePheshiya lovumela maJuda kutsi abuyele eJerusalema kuyo wakha liThempeli.

I-Ketuvim iphetse lamabhuku lalishumimi nakuye lalandzelayo, ahlukasiwe kumabhuku latolikiwe anyala agcine sekalishuma nakubili ngekuhlukana kwa Ezra naNehemiya:

  • 14. Psalms, Ps—Tehillim (תהלים)
  • 15. Proverbs, Pr—Mishlei (משלי)
  • 16. Job, Jb—Iyyov (איוב)
  • 17. Song of Songs, So—Shir ha-Shirim (שיר השירים)
  • 18. Ruth, Ru—Rut (רות)
  • 19. Lamentations, La—Eikhah (איכה), also called Kinot (קינות)
  • 20. Ecclesiastes, Ec—Kohelet (קהלת)
  • 21. Esther, Es—Ester (אסתר)
  • 22. Daniel, Dn—Daniel (דניאל)
  • 23. Ezra, Ea, includes Nehemiah, Ne—Ezra (עזרא), includes Nehemiah (נחמיה)
  • 24. Chronicles, includes First and Second, 1Ch–2Ch—Divrei ha-Yamim (דברי הימים), also called Divrei (דברי)

i-Torah[hlela | edit source]

Ngekusho kwalamanye maJuda ngesikhatsi se-Hellenistic, njenge baSajusi, i-Torah yayitfolakala ngekutolikwa lokuncane ngekwemlomo, lebekunga chubekeli ngekwekuvisiseka kwelibhayibheli. Ngekusho kweBafarisi, Simakadze waveta i-Torah lebeyibhaliwe kanye ne-Torah leyakhulunywa kuMosi, le-Torah leyakhulunywa beyiphetse tindzaba kanye nemitsetfo. TukwebuJuda bebu-Rabbinic, le-Torah leyakhulunywa ibalulekile ekuvisiseni le-Torah Lebhaliwe ngekwekukhuluma. (ngoba lite bonkamisa, nabongwaca, kanye nesihlukasi magama) ne-exegetically. Le-Torah leyakhulunywa inetigaba letihlukene, sicalo Halacha (imitsetfo), ne-Aggadah (tindzaba), kanye ne-Kabbalah (lwati lolu-esoteric). Tigaba letinkhulu taloMtsetfo Lokhulunyiwe setagcina tibhalwe phansi, sibonelo yi-Mishnah; ne-Tosefta; Midrash, nane-Midrash Rabbah, ne-Sifre, ne-Sifra, kanye ne-Mechilta; kanye ne-Talmud yemaBhabhilona nemaJerusalema futsi.

buJuda bebu-Orthodox buyachubeka nekwamukela i-Torah Leyakhulunywa njengoba injalo. Masorti ne-maJuda langalamukelilushintsho batsi i-Torah Leyakhulunywa yabusiswa moya loyingcwele, kepha bayakushaya indiva kuphikisana kwalo lapha nalapha. BuJuda lobubuyisanako nabo bamukela i-Talmud lephetse imibhalo ye-Torah Leyakhulunywa, kepha, njenge-Torah leyabhalwa, tindzawana letilawulwe, kepha tingaka ndlovukelwa, nguSimakadze. BuJuda Bekwakhiwa buyabuphika kuchumana ne-Torah, Lebhaliwe kanye naLeyakhulunywa, naSimakadze.

Lombhalo longe Mibono yemaJuda ngeLibhayibheli icoca ngekutsi alivisisa njani Libhayibheli maJuda, kufaka ekhatsi ticephu tembono telibhayibheli takudzala Targums kuya ku-Rabbinic literature, imibhalo ye-midrash, nemibhalo lebalulekile ye-medieval commentators, kanye nemibono yesimanje yemaJuda ngelibhayibheli.

Caphela[hlela | edit source]