Kubeleka

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Kubeleka
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle

Kubeleka, lekubuye kwatiwe ngekutsi umhelo noma kukhululeka nabewutitfwele, kungalesikhatsi kuphelakukhulelwa ubeleka umntfwana munye noma ngetulu aphuma esibeletfwenisamake.[1] Ngemnyaka wa-2015 bekubeleke bantfu labalinganiselwa kutigidzi leti-135 mhlabawonkhe. [2] Bantfwana labalinganiselwa kutigidzi leti-15 batalwa ngembi kwemaviki lange-37 sekukhulelwa,[3] ngalesikhatsi labangu 3 kuya ku-12% batalwa sekundlule emaviki lange-42.[4] Emaveni lesekatfutfukile bantfu labanyenti babelekela etibhedlela,[5][6] ngalesikhatsiemaveni lasatfutfuka bantfu labanyenti babelekela emakhaya basitwa ngumuntfu lomdzala wendzawo lobelekisako.[7]

Indlela lejwayelekile yekubelekangulena yekukhipha umntfwana ngesitfo sangasese.[8] Lendlela ifaka ekhatsi tinyatselo letintsatfu temhelo: nekufinyela kanye kube netinhlungu nasivulekako, kwehla kwemntfwana nekubeleka lomntfwana, nekuchilitaukhiphele ngaphandle indlu yemntfwana.[9] Lesigaba sekucala sitsatsa emahora lalishumi nakubili kuya kulishumi nemfica, sigaba sesibili sitsatsa imizuzu lengemashumi lamabili kuya kumahora lamabili, kantsi sinyatselo sesitsatfu sitsatsa imizuzu lesihlanu kuya kulengemashumi lamatsatfu. [10] Lesigaba sekucala sicala ngekutsi kusike esinyeni netinhlungu ecolo letitsatsa sigamu semzuzu bese buyabuya lobuhlungu njalo ngemuva kwemizuzu lelishumi kuya kulengemashumi lamatsatfu. [9] Letinhlungu letisikako tiba buhlungu ngemandla futsi tisondzelane ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi. [10] Ngalesikhatsi sesigaba sesibili kutawuvakala kuchiliteka kanye netinhlungu temhelo. [10] Kusigaba sesitsatfu kwentsambo yenkhaba kuvamise kunconywa. [11] Tindlela letinyenti letihlukene tingasita ekudzambiseni tinhlungu njengemasu ekwehlisa emaphaphu, ema-opioids, kanye nekushikisha umgogodla.[10]

Bantfwana labanyenti nababelekwa kuphuma inhloko kucala; nomakunjalo, 4% beta ngetinyawo kucala noma tibunu kucala, lekubitwa ngekutsi ngekuvundla.[10][12] Ngalesikhatsi uphetfwe ngumhelo ungakwati kudla nekuhamba ngendlela lofuna ngayo, kuchilita akukavumeleki ngalesikhatsi sesigaba sekucala noma ngalesikhatsi kuphuma inhloko, kanye nekujova akukavumeleki.[13] Ngalesikhatsi kujutjwa kuvulwa sikhalakulembobo yangasese, lekubuye kwatiwe ngekutsiyi-episiotomy, kujwayelekile kantsi akudzingeki kangako. [10] Nga 2012, kubeleke bantfu labalinganiselwa ku-24 wetigidzi ngekutsi bahlindvwekujutjwe esuswini lekutsiwa yisiza.[14] Isiza inganconywa uma ngabe umuntfu abeleka emawele, kunekucindzeteleka kwemntfwana, noma eta afulatsela.[10] Lendlela yekubeleka ingatsatsa sikhatsi lesidze kutsi uphole uma usebentise yona. [10]

Umnyaka ngamunye tinkhinga letiphatselene nekubeleka kanye nekukhulelwa tiba yimbangela yekushona kwalabalinganiselwa ku 500,000 ngemnyaka, tigidzi letingu-7 tabomake baba netinkhinga letimbi letitsatsa sikhatsi lesidze, kantsi tigidzi letinge-50 tabomake baba nemitselela lengasimihle yemiphumela yetemphilo ngemuva kwekubeleka. [15] Lokunyenti kwaloku kwentekaemaveni lasatfutfuka. [15] Kungahambi kahle lokunyenti kufaka ekhatsi kuphatamiseka kwemhelo, kopha ngembi kwekubeleka, eclampsia , kanye nekusuleleka nge-postpartum.[15] Tinkhinga letiba khona emntfwaneni tifaka ekhatsi kutalwa ne-asphyxia.[16]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. Martin, Elizabeth. Concise Colour Medical Dictionary (in English). Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780199687992. 
  2. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  3. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  4. Buck, Germaine M.; Platt, Robert W. (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199857746. 
  5. Co-Operation, Organisation for Economic; Development (2009). Doing better for children. Paris: OECD. p. 105. ISBN 9789264059344. 
  6. Olsen, O; Clausen, JA (12 September 2012). "Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (9): CD000352. PMID 22972043. 
  7. Fossard, Esta de; Bailey, Michael (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment–Education for Distance Education. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351507581. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  8. Memon, HU; Handa, VL (May 2013). "Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders.". Women's health (London, England) 9 (3): 265–77; quiz 276–7. PMID 23638782. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Birth". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30 from Encyclopedia.com. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 "Pregnancy Labor and Birth". Women's Health. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  11. McDonald, SJ; Middleton, P; Dowswell, T; Morris, PS (11 July 2013). "Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD004074. PMID 23843134. 
  12. Hofmeyr, GJ; Hannah, M; Lawrie, TA (21 July 2015). "Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD000166. PMID 26196961. 
  13. Childbirth: Labour, Delivery and Immediate Postpartum Care (in English). World Health Organization. 2015. p. Chapter D. ISBN 978-92-4-154935-6. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  14. Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, AB (1 December 2015). "Relationship Between Cesarean Delivery Rate and Maternal and Neonatal Mortality". JAMA 314 (21): 2263–70. PMID 26624825. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15553. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Education material for teachers of midwifery : midwifery education modules (2nd ed.). Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-4-154666-9. 
  16. Martin, Richard J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Walsh, Michele C. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 116. ISBN 9780323295376.