Kukhulelwa

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Kukhulelwa
Kuhlelwa kanye nemitfombolwati yangaphandle
ICD/CIM-10Z33 Z33
ICD/CIM-9650 650
DiseasesDB10545
MedlinePlus002398

Kukhulelwa, lekubuye kwatiwe ngekutsi kutetfwala noma kuba matima, kungalesikhatsi umuntfu atfwele umntfwana munyenoma ngetulu akhulela ngekhatsi esuswini samake.[1] Kubeleka nekukhulelwa emawele kufaka ekhatsi kubeleka bantfwana labangetulu kwamunye, njengemawele.[2] Umuntfu angakhulelwa ngekuya emacansini noma ngekusitwa kutsi akhulelwe ngekusebentisa itheknoloji. Kuvame kutsatsa emaviki langema-40 (10 tinyanga tekukhulelwa kusukela ngalesikhatsi ugcina kuya esikhatsini (LMP) kuphele ngalesikhatsi ubeleka.[1][3] Loku kuba ngemaviki lalinganiselwa kula-38 ngemuva nekubamba sisu. Umntfwana longakavutfwa kuba nguloku lokukhulela ngekhatsi esuswini kulamaviki lasi-8 ekucala ngemuva kwekubamba sisu lapho kutawubese kusetjentiswa leligama lelitsi ifuthasi udzimate ubeleke.[3] Timphawu tekukhulelwa ngemalanga ekucala tingafaka ekhatsi kungayi esikhatsini, emabele lafutsako, kuhlanta nekunyakuleka, kulamba nekuchama lokungapheli. [4] Kukhulelwa kungacinisekiswa ngekutsi kutsatfwe luhlolo lwekukhulelwa.[5]

Kukhulelwa kuhlukaniswe ngetigaba letintsatfu. Sigabasekucala sisukela kuliviki lekucala kuya emavikini lalishumi nakubili kantsi kufaka ekhatsi kubamba sisu. Kubamba sisu kulandzelwa kuvundziswa kwelicandza lelihamba lehle ngelishubhu lelisesinyeni bese liyonamatsela esibeletfweni lapho licala khona kwenta umntfwana kanye nendlu yakhe.[1] Lesigaba sekucala sinebungoti lobukhulu bekuphunyelwa sisu (kushona kwelicandza lelivundzisiwe noma umntfwana lesekangekhatsi).[6] Lesigaba sesibili sisukela kuliviki le-13 kuya ku-28 nesiphohlongo. Ngasemkhatsini walesigaba sesibili ungahle uve umntfwana adlala. Nawunemaviki lange-28 ngetulu kwemaphesenti lange-90% bangakhona kuphila ngaphandle kwesibeletfo uma ngabe banakekelwa ngelizinga leliphakeme letemphilo. Sigaba sesitsatfu sisukela emavikini la-29 kuya kumaviki lange-40.[1]

Kunakekelwa kwalokhulelwe kwenta imiphumela yekukhulelwa ibe mihle kakhulu. [7] Loku kungafaka ekhatsi kunatsa emaphilisi lamanyenti efolikhi esidi, ungatsatsi tidzakamiva netjwala, utilolonge njalo, utihlole ingati, nekuhlala njalo uhlolwa umtimba wakho.[7] Kuba netinkhinga nawukhulelwe kungafaka ekhatsi tekunyukelwa yingati nawukhulelwe, kuba nesifo sashukela nawukhulelwe, kungabi nengati kahle nekuswela i-ayoni, kanye lehambisana nekunyakuleka nekuhlanta kakhulu kuletinye tifo letikhona. [8] Kukhulelwa kwethemu kuba nemaviki lange-37 kuya kumaviki lange-41, kantsi ithembi lengembi kwesikhatsi kuba ngemaviki la-37 ne 38, ithemu lephelele yekukhulelwa ngu-39 emaviki kuya kula-40, kantsi ithemu lendlulelwe sikhatsi ngu-41. Ngemuva kwemaviki la-41 kwatiwa ngekutsi sewundlulelwe sikhatsi. Bantfwana lababelekwa ngembi kwemaviki lange-37 babelekwe ngembi kwesikhatsi kantsi basengotini yekugulanjengekuphatfwa sifo sekutsikameteka kwengcondvo nekungahambi ngendlela lefanele.[1] Kuyanconywa kwekutsi kubeleka kungabi ngulokuchilitwako mhlawumbengekujovela kutsi kucale umhelo noma kubeleka ngekuhlindvwa ngembi kwemaviki lange-39 ngaphandle kwekutsi kube nesidzingo ngenca yetizatfu tetemphilo. [9]

Bantfu labakhulelwe labalinganiselwa kutigidzi leti-213 bakhulelwa nga 2012 lapho khona tigidzi leti-190 bebasemaveni lasatfutfuka kantsi tigidzi leti-23 bebasemaveni lesekatfutfukile. Loku kulinganiselwa kubantfu labangu 133 kubomake laba-1,000 labasemkhatsini weminyaka leli-15 kuya 44. [10] Kukhulelwa lokulinganiselwa ku 10% kuya ku 15% lokwatiwako kanye nekuphunyelwa tisu. [6] Ngemnyaka wa 2013 kuba netinkhinga kwalabakhulelwe kwaholela ekutseni 293,000 webantfu bashone kunalaba labangu 377,000 banga 1990. Timbangela letetayelekile tifaka ekhatsi kopha nawukhulelwe, tinkhinga tekukhipha sisu, kwenyukelwa yingati nawukhulelwe, kuba ne-sepsis nawukhulelwe, kanye kuphatamiseka kwemhelo.[11] Mhlabawonkhe 40% wekukhulelwa futsi kungafunwa. Ihhafu yalokukhulelwa lokungakahlelwa kukhiswha kwetisu.[10] Ngekhatsi kwalokukhulelwa lokungakahlelwa e-United States, 60% walabomake basebentisa kwekuhlela umndeni ngalesikhatsi salenyanga labakhulelwe ngayo. [12]

Emareferensi[hlela | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Pregnancy: Condition Information". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  2. Wylie, Linda (2005). Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care (Second Edition ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 172. ISBN 9780443100413. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Abman, Steven H. (2011). Fetal and neonatal physiology (4th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781416034797. 
  4. "What are some common signs of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  5. "How do I know if I’m pregnant?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012. p. 438. ISBN 9781451148015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "What is prenatal care and why is it important?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  8. "What are some common complications of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. 07/12/2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  9. World Health Organization (November 2014). "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". who.int. Retrieved 6 Mar 2015. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh, G; Singh, S; Hussain, R (September 2014). "Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends.". Studies in family planning 45 (3): 301–14. PMID 25207494. 
  11. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  12. K. Joseph Hurt, Matthew W. Guile, Jessica L. Bienstock, Harold E. Fox, Edward E. Wallach (eds.). The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 382. ISBN 9781605474335.