Eduardo Mondlane

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Eduardo Mondlane
Eduardo Mondlane.jpg
Kutalwa Manjacaze Translate, iNhlaba 20, 1920
Estado Novo Translate
Inhlanga Tsonga people Translate
Dar es Salaam Translate, iNdlovana 3, 1969
 (explosion Translate)
Janet Mondlane Translate
Imfundvo
Educated at Harvard University Translate
iNyuvesi yase Witwatersrand
Northwestern University Translate
University of Lisbon Translate
(iNhlaba 1950 -
Oberlin College Translate
(1951 -
Academic degree Doctor of Philosophy Translate
Doctoral student Edward Soja Translate
Languages spoken, written or signed Portuguese Translate
Luoi
Luoi anthropologist Translate and sopolitiki
Employer Syracuse University Translate
Belief
Member of political party FRELIMO

Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane (Inhlaba 20, 1920 - Indlovana 3, 1969) bekangumongameli wekucala welicembu letembangave le Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) kusukela ngemnyaka wa 1962, ekusungulweni kwayo i FRELIMO e Tanzania, kwate kwafika lapho abulawa khona ngemnyaka wa 1969. Bekaneticu te anthropology kodvwa bekafundzisa temlandvo kanye nenhlalakahle e Syracuse University.

Ebuncaneni bakhe[hlela | edit source]

Mondlane uphuma esiveni semaShangane kantsi bekangumntfwana wesine kumadvodzana lalishumi nesitfupha, babe wakhe bekayindvuna ebukhosini bakaMondlane kantsi yena Eduardo watalwa e "Nwajahani", esigodzini sase Mandlakazi esifundzeni sase Gaza,"[1] eMozambiki ngo 1920. Angumfana bekalusa waze waba neminyaka lengu 12. Wangena etikolweni letinyenti telibanga leliphansi ngaphambi kwekungena e SwissPresbyterian madvute nje nasse Manjacaze, Kodvwa libanga lelisitulu ulicedzele e Ningizimu Afrika kulo lona lilunga lalesikholo eLemana eTransvaal. Ubese wenta umnyaka munye esikolweni senhlala kahle iJan Hofmeyer School of Social ngaphambi kwekucala timfundvo takhe eWitwatersrand University e Jozi Kodvwa wabese uyacoshwa eNingizimu Afrika ngo 1949 ngaphansi wemtsetfo welibandlululo lowaciniswa emacembu etembangave latsatsa umbuso ngaleso sikhatsi. Ngenyanga yeNhlaba 1950 Mondlane wangena e University of Lisbon, edolobheni lase Lisbon, inhloko dholobha yase Portugal, kodvwa kwatsi lapho sekaneminyaka lengu 31 wabese uyacela Mondlane kutsi andluliselwe e Melika wabese uchuba timfundvo takhe ngaphansi kwemfundzate wePhelps Stokes scholarship e Oberlin College edholobheni lase Ohio. Mondlane wangena ekolishi lase Oberlin emnyakeni wa 1951, kwatsi ngemnyaka wa 1953 waphotfula timfundvo takhe ku anthropology kanye naku sociology. Wachubeka ke netimfundvo takhe e Northwestern University edholobheni lase Evanston, e Illinois, ngulapha watfola khona iMA kanye ne PhD ngulapho waphindze washada khona nankosikati welibala lelimhlophe Janet Rae Johnson, lobekaphuma e Indiana kodvwa abehlala endzaweni yase Chicago.

Tepolitiki[hlela | edit source]

Emva kwekuphotfula tifundvo takhe Eduardo Mondlane wabese usebenta Kwi Nhlangano yeTive:United Nations. Lapha wahlangana nabo António de Oliveira Salazar lobekangumeluleki wembuso lobalulekile was Portugal kanye na Adriano Moreira, lebekafundzisa tifundvo tepolitiki aphindze abukene netangaphandle tembuso we Portugal, kantsi ngekubona kukhalipha kwaMondlane, lamadvodza lamabili atama kumheha kutsi asebentele umbuso we Portugal abukane netindzaba tase Mozambique kodvwa Mondlane amange akhombise kutimisela ngekutsatsa lesikhundla kodvwa wakhetsa kuyongenela emacembu labekase Tanzania alwela inkululeko yase Mozambiki.[2] Kwatsi ngo 1962 Mondlane wakhetfwa njenga mongameli welicembu lebelitsandza kubunjwa i Mozambican Liberation Front (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique kumbe FRELIMO), lebelibunjwe ticucu temacembu labekalwela inkululeko. Ngo 1963 wahlala kanye nemndeni wakhe dvutane nemaHhovisi eFRELIMO e Dar-es-Salaam e Tanzania. Lelicembu lelisha belitfola kuchaswa ngemave langesheya lafana nabo Russia lebeyatiwa nge USSR, kanye nemave as Afrika lamanyenti, ngulapha ke i FRELIMO yacala kuhlasela ngetempi ilwela inkululeka yeMozambiki eveni lase Portugal. Licembu leFRELIMO belihlukene kabili ekucaleni kwalo, nanobe bonke baholi balo bebalwela inkululeko yeMozambiki kodvwa bekunelihlangotsi lebelifuna kutsi kukhishwe emaputukezi bese kuchubeka bantfu labamnyama etikhundleni tawo, laba bekungubo Nkavandame kanye nabo Simango, bebaphindze bafuna kutsi umbuso ucunjwe phansi kantsi bo Mondlane, Machel kanye nabo Chissano bebafuna kutsi bantfu labahluphekako baseMozambiki babeyincenye yekulwela inkululeko kantsi bebafuna kutsi emaputukezi acoshwe ngendlela yekuhlwa hhayi kucumba phansi umbuso. Lokungaboni ngeliso linye kwacazululwa ngelukhetfo lwenhlangano lelenteka nga Kholwane 1968 lapho luvo lwabo Mondlane laphumelela kwatsi Mondlane wabuyiselwa esikhundleni sebungameli belicembu.[3]

Kufa kwakhe[hlela | edit source]

Ngemnyaka wa 1969 i bhomu yafakwa phakatsi kwelibhuku yabese iyatfunyelwa emahhovisi eFRELIMO e Dar es Salaam, eTanzania. Yadubuka yambulala khona lapho Eduardo Mondlane. Tinhlangotsi letinyenti tiyasolwa ngekufa kwa Mondlane kusukela embusweni wetekuhlola tase Portugal kuya kulamanye emahlangotsi e FRELIMO. Lomunye lebekayinhloli yetembuso we Portugal iPIDE Oscar Cardoso utsi lona lowahlanyela lebhomu leyabulala Mondlane bekasebenta naye ngu Casimiro Monteiro.[4][5]

Tikhumbuto[hlela | edit source]

Inkonzo yemngcwabo yaMondlane beyiphetfwe ngumfundisi Edward Hawley lowafundza naye e Oberlin baphindze babangani labebasondzelene impela , waphindze wakhuluma lamagama watsi "Mondlane ufele liciniso kantsi futsi bekamutfu lohloniphekile aphindze asebenta matima"

iNyuvesi ye Eduardo Mondlane[hlela | edit source]

ngo 1975 i Universidade de Lourenço Marques lebeyisungulwe maputukezi kantsi futsi leligama belisetjentiswa kubita lidholobhakati lase Mozambiki iMaputo laguculwa labitwa ngeUniversidade Eduardo Mondlane, kumbe Eduardo Mondlane University. Lenyuvesi itfolakala enhlokodholobha lase Mozambiki eMaputo. [6] [7] [8]


Leminye imisebenti ngaye[hlela | edit source]

  • Eduardo Mondlane, The Struggle for Mozambique. 1969, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.
  • "Conversations with Eduardo Mondlane", ngu Helen Kitchen. ku Africa Report, #12 (November 1967), p. 51.

Tichumaniso[hlela | edit source]

  1. Cossa, Jose. 2012. "Reviving the Memory of Eduardo Mondlane in Syracuse: Links between Syracuse and a Mozambican Liberation Leader," Peace Newsletter #819 (November–December), pp. 11-12. Syracuse Peace Council.
  2. Kenneth Maxwell, The Making of Portuguese Democracy, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-58596-1, ISBN 978-0-521-58596-5
  3. http://www.noeasyvictories.org/select/chap1_lead.php
  4. http://www.answers.com/topic/eduardo-mondlane
  5. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Why-Was-Eduardo-Mondlane-Assassinated-914321.html
  6. http://idmmei.isme.org/index.php/institutions?pid=119&sid=2778:Eduardo-Mondlane-University-Universidade-Eduardo-Mondlane-Maputo
  7. http://www.uem.mz/index.php/en/
  8. http://www.iconzafrica.org/partners/partner-14