EmaSwati

From Wikipedia
Swati
Emaswati
Swati warriors at incwala
Linani Lebantfu
c. 2,389,143
Regions with significant populations
 Eswatini 1,185,000
 South Africa 1,297,046
 Mozambique 30,000
Tilwimi
Siswati, English
Tinkholo
Christianity (Zionist Churches, Catholic), Swazi religion
Related ethnic groups
Xhosa, Hlubi, Zulu, Ndebele, Sotho, Tsonga

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Umuntfu liSwati
Bantfu emaSwati
Language siSwati
Country eSwatini

EmaSwazi noma emaSwati (Swati: Emaswati, amunye Liswati) licembu lebantfu bema Bantu lelisukela eNingizimu ye-Afrika, lelihlala eSwatini, umbuso lotimele eNingizimu ye-Afrika. EmaSwati ayincenye yebantfu labakhuluma lulwimi lwesiNguni, imvelaphi yabo ingalandvwa ngemlandvo waseMphumalanga ye-Afrika lapho kutfolakala khona emasiko, tinkholelo kanye nemikhuba yemasiko.

Bantfu baseSwatini kanye neMbuso waseSwatini lamuhla babitwa ngeligama la-Mswati II, lowaba yinkhosi ngemnyaka wa-1839 ngemuva kwekufa kwababe wakhe iNkhosi Sobhuza lowancoba emaNgisi labekahlala e-Eswatini. I-Eswatini bekuyindzawo lebeyihlala bantfu bema San futsi emaSwatis alamuhla asuka enyakatfo ye-Mphumalanga ye-Afrika aya eMozambique futsi agcine ahlala e-Eswatini ngelikhulu lesi-15. Umlandvo wabo wasebukhosini ungahle ulandzelwe yinkhosi lebitwa ngekutsi nguDlamini I; leli lisolo liligama lebukhosi. Lokungaba tincenye letintsatfu kuletine temacembu ngemaNguni; leletinye ngemaSotho, emaTsonga, labanye baseNyakatfo yeMphumalanga ye-Afrika kanye netitukulwane temaSan. Lamacembu ashadane ngekukhululeka. Umlandvo wemaSwati ufinyelela kubo bonkhe labambelele emakhosini lamabili Ingwenyama "libhubesi" (inkhosi) kanye na Indlovukati "indlovu" (indlovukazi). Lulwimi nemasiko emaSwati ngito tintfo letihlanganisa emaSwati njengesive.

Umlandvo[hlela | edit source]

EmaSwati atalwa ngemaNguni lakhuluma siNguni, laphuma enyakatfo yeMphumalanga ye-Afrika futsi ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi ahlala eningizimu-mpumalanga ye-Africa ngelikhulu lelishumi nesihlanu. Batfutsela eningizimu yeMozambique, base baya esifundzeni sase-Eswatini lesikhona nyalo lapho bekuhlala khona bantfu bemaSan. Leligama lelitsi bakaNgwane ("bantfu baNgwane") lisasetjentiswa njengalenye indlela yekubita emaSwati, kuchaza bantfu baseSwatini. EmaSwati bantfu labavela kubantfu labakhuluma lulwimi lwesiNguni. Nomakunjalo labanye bantfu baseSwatini bavela emindenini yemaSotho lebeyihlala eSwatini.

Njengencenye yekukhula kwemaNguni ngaseningizimu, bantfu baseSwatini bewela uMfula weLimpopo bahlala eningizimu yeTongaland (namuhla eningizimu yeMozambique eceleni kweMaputo) ngasekupheleni kwelikhulu lelishumi nesihlanu. Bantfu bakaNgwane babhalwa kutsi bangena endzaweni lekhona nyalo yaseSwatini cishe ngemnyaka wa-1600. Ngephansi kwebuholi baDlamini III lowatfola sikhundla kumaMaseko futsi wahlala khona ngemnyaka wa 1750, eceleni kweMfula iPongola lapho ihlangana khona netintsaba taseLubombo. Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi, batfutsela esifundzeni lesisedvute neMfula iPongola, lebeyisedvutane nebantfu bakaNdwandwe. Lowalandzela waDlamini III watsatsa bukhosi bekunguNgwane III, lotsatfwa njengeNkhosi yekucala yaseSwatini. Wabusa kusukela ngemnyaka wa 1745 kuya ku 1780 esifundzeni sase Shiselweni eSwatini.

Ngemnyaka wa 1815, Sobhuza I waba yinkhosi yaseSwatini futsi waba nemtfwalo wekusungula emandla ase Swatini enkabeni yeSwatini. Lapho bantfu baseSwati bachubeka neluhlelo lwekukhulisa ngekuncoba tive letiningi letincane letikhuluma siSotho kanye nesiNguni kwentela kwakha live lelikhulu lelibitwa ngekutsi yi-Eswatini. Kubusa kwa Sobhuza I kwenteka ngesikhatsi sa Mfecane. Ngephansi kwebuholi baSobhuza, bantfu bakaNguni naseSotho kanye nemacembu emaSan ahlanganiswa esiveni saseSwatini. Kwakungesikhatsi sekubusa kwakhe lapho imincele yaseSwatini beyingephansi kwekubusa kwemakhosi aka-Dlamini.

Ngasekupheleni kwemnyaka wa 1830, kuhlangana kwekucala kwenteka nemaBhunu, lebekancobe emaZulus eMphini yeMfula weNgati, futsi bekahlala endzaweni lebeyitawuba yiRiphabhulikhi yaseNingizimu Afrika. Incenye lenkhulu yendzawo yaseSwatini yaniketwa emaBhunu aseTransvaal lahlala endzaweni yaseLydenburg ngemnyaka wa-1840. Indzawo yase-Eswatini, kanye nenkhosi yabo, Mswati II, kwabonwa yi-Transvaal ne-British. Kwakungesikhatsi sekubusa kwa Mswati II lapho sive sase Swati sahlanganiswa khona. Ngemuva kwaloko, leligama lelitsi "Swati" lagcina lisetjentiswe kubo bonkhe bantfu lebebatiniketele eNgwenyameni.

Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi ngaphansi kwa Mbandzeni, tindzawo letinyenti tekutsengiselana, umhlaba, kanye netetimayini taniketwa emaNgiai kanye nemaBhunu. Lesi sinyatselo saholela ekulahlekelweni yindzawo eNingizimu Afrika. Umphumela waba kutsi linani lelikhulu lebantfu baseSwatini bagcina bahlala ngaphandle kwe-Eswatini eNingizimu Afrika. I-Pretoria Convention for the Settlement of the Transvaal nga-1881 yavuma inkhululeko yaseSwatini futsi yachaza imincele yayo. Ingwenyama bekungasiyo lasayinile, futsi emaSwati atsi indzawo yawo yandza kuto tonkhe tinhlangotsi kusuka kulelive lelikhona nyalo. EmaNgisi atfola ligunya etikwe-Swatini nga-1903, futsi atfola inkhululeko nga-1968.

Lamuhla, bantfu baseSwatini bahlala eSwatini nase Ningizimu Afrika. Bantfu labavela eSwatini eNingizimu Afrika bavame kubonakala ngekukhuluma siSwati, nobe lulwimi lolutsite lwaleyo ndzawo. Kuphindze kube netakhamuti letinyenti temaSwati eNingizimu Afrika nase United Kingdom. Inombolo yema-emaSwati eNingizimu Afrika yinkhulu kancane kunaleyo yema-Swati aseSwatini, lokungaba bantfu labatigidzi letingu-1.2. Eswatini yalamuhla, bantfu base-Swatini bahlanganisa tonkhe takhamiti taseSwatini kungakhatsaleki kutsi tiyini buve bato.

Umlandvo[hlela | edit source]

Emakhosi aseSwatini asukela emuva ngesikhatsi seluhlanga lwebukhosi lwe-Dlamini luhlala dvutane ne-Delagoa Bay. Bantfu baseSwatini njengesive basungulwa ngemacembu lalishumi nesikhombisa latiwa ngekutsi yi-bemdzabuko ("EmaSwati sibili") labehamba nemakhosi akaDlamini ekucaleni. Emacembu lalishumi nesikhombisa lasungulwa bekungu Dlamini, Nhlabathi, Hlophe, Kunene, Mabuza, Madvonsela, Mamba, Matsebula, Mdluli, Motsa, Ngwenya, Shongwe, Sukati, Tsabedze, Tfwala, Mbhokane kanye na Zwane. Leminye imindeni yemaSwati ngemakhandzambili ("labo labatfolakala embili", sibonelo, i-Gamedze, i-Fakudze, i-Ngcamphalala kanye ne-Magagula), lokusho kutsi bebakhona kulelive ngaphambi kwekungena kwe-Dlamini kanye nekuncoba. Emafikemuva ("labo labefika ngemuva") labajoyina lombuso ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi.

Emasiko[hlela | edit source]

Inkhosatana Sikhanyiso igidza emkhosini wemhlanga
Umfati waseSwatini agidza

Kugidza kanye nekuhlabela, kufaka ekhatsi kuhlabela ngekudvumisa, kuyintfo leyetayelekile emasikweni aseSwatini. Kubumba kanye nekubata bekungemakhono lamancane. Umshado wesintfu waseSwatini ubitwa ngekutsi ngumtsimba; kuvame kuba ngemphelasontfo ngesikhatsi sesomiso (June kuya ku-August). Makoti netihlobo takhe baya ekhaya lemkhwenyana ngaLesihlanu kusihlwa. NgeMgcibelo ekuseni, labashadako bahlala eceleni kwemfula losedvute bese badla inyama yembuti nobe yenkhomo leniketwe ngumndeni wemkhwenyana; ntsambama, bayagidza ekhabo mkhwenyana. NgeLisontfo ekuseni, lomakoti, netihlobo takhe letinsikati, bagwaza umhlaba ngesikhali esibayeni setinkhomo sakhabo mkhwenyana; ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi ugcotjwiswa nge libovu. Lokugcotjiswa kuyintfo lehamba embili emshadweni: kute umfati longagcotjiswa kabili. Lomakoti upha indvodza yakhe netihlobo takhe tipho. Umhlanga ngulenye yemicimbi nemasiko lentiwako ase-Eswatini lobanjwa ngenyanga yeNgci/Nyoni wentelwa emantfombatana lasemancane langakashadi kute ahloniphe i-Ndlovukati. Incwala ngulomunye umhambo nemasiko wemaSwati lobanjwa ngenyanga yeNgongoni/January, kushiyane ngetigaba tenyangeni. Lomcimbi, lophindze watiwe ngekutsi ngumcimbi we-"Sitselo Sekucala", uphawula kunambitseka kweNkhosi kwesivuno lesisha.

Inkholo[hlela | edit source]

Inkholo yesintfu yemaSwati ibona Nkulunkulu/umdali lophakeme esimeni sakhe lesihlantekile kantsi bokhokho bayabonwa. Inkholo yemaSwati isekelwe kumdali lowatiwa ngekutsi nguMvelincanti (loyo lobekakhona kusukela ekucaleni). EmaSwati lamanyenti ahlanganisa lenkholelo nenkholo yebuKrestu yalamuhla leyaletfwa titfunywa telivangeli. Labanyenti bachubeka nekwenta tinkholelo tabo tendzabuko. Imisimeto yemoya yentiwa ezingeni lemndeni lehlobene nekutalwa, kufa kanye nemshado.

Buka futsi[hlela | edit source]

  • Umtsimba – marriage ceremony

Imibhalo lebhalwe phansi[hlela | edit source]